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CONFINED SPACE GENERAL INDUSTRY VS CONSTRUCTION

INTRODUCTION

 

.1926.1202–Definitions Explained

OSHA adopted much of the definitions from its general industry confined spaces standard (29 CFR 1910.146); and is generally consistent with the voluntary consensus standard on confined spaces, ANSI Z117.1-2003. OSHA used many of the definitions in final rule Section 1926.1202 from other OSHA construction standards.  OSHA included these definitions in this final rule to minimize referencing those other standards. Also, the general industry standard does not include a definition of “control.” OSHA has included a  definition in this final rule to clarify ventilation and other atmospheric controls give some level of worker protection, even if such measures are not fully protective. OSHA described the terms identically to the general industry standard or altered the meaning slightly to make grammatical improvements or to explain the meaning of the term.

 

OSHA revised the following definitions so that the terms are consistent with the general industry terms in Section: 1910.146(b):

  1. Entry,
  2. Entry supervisor
  3. Hazardous atmosphere
  1. Immediately dangerous to life and health
  2. Permit-required confined space
  3. Rescue service,
  1. Retrieval system, and
  2. Testing

OSHA included some terms defined in the general industry confined spaces standard at Section 1910.146(b), including:

  1. Acceptable entry conditions
  2. Hot work, inerting
  1. Line-breaking
  2. Non-permit confined space, and
  1. Prohibited condition.

The Final Rule standard uses the following terms not used in the general industry standard CFR 29 1910.146(b) Permit-required Confined Spaces definitions:

  1. Barrier
  2. Competent person
  3. Control
  4. Controlling Contractor
  5. Early-warning system
  6. Entry Employer
  7. Entry rescue
  8. Hazard

 

  1. Host Employer
  2. Limited or Restricted
  3. Lockout
  4. Lower flammable limit or lower explosive limit
  5. Monitor or monitoring
  6. Non-entry rescue
  7. Physical hazard

 

  1. Qualified person
  2. Representative permit space
  3. Rescue
  4. Serious physical damage
  5. Tagout and
  6. Ventilate or ventilation

 

The Final Rule is a completed process in which federal regulations are created and modified in a seven-stage procedure and allow various stakeholders, including federal and state entities, industry leaders, trade-organization, local governments, and the general public, to participate in creating new regulations via notice and comment periods.  There’s a wealth of information within the Final Rule that addresses the newly promulgated confined space construction standards .1926.1200 definitions and regulations and is essential to interpreting and understanding the construction confined space standard. In this article’s main body, we used OSHA’s Confined Spaces in Construction; Final Rule to interpret each definition and regulation in the third column in navy-blue print.

Defined Terms

General Industry
.1910.146(a) Scope

Scope and application. This section contains requirements for practices and procedures to protect employees in general industry from the hazards of entry into permit-required confined spaces. This section does not apply to agriculture, to construction, or to shipyard employment (Parts 1928, 1926, and 1915 of this chapter, respectively).

Construction Standard
1926.1201 Scope

(a) This standard sets forth requirements for practices and procedures to protect employees engaged in construction activities at a worksite with one or more confined spaces, subject to the exceptions in paragraph (b) of this section.

Note to paragraph §1926.1201(a). Examples of locations where confined spaces may occur include, but are not limited to, the following: Bins; boilers; pits (such as elevator, escalator, pump, valve or other equipment); manholes (such as sewer, storm drain, electrical, communication, or other utility); tanks (such as fuel, chemical, water, or other liquid, solid or gas); incinerators; scrubbers; concrete pier columns; sewers; transformer vaults; heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) ducts; storm drains; water mains; precast concrete and other pre-formed manhole units; drilled shafts; enclosed beams; vessels; digesters; lift stations; cesspools; silos; air receivers; sludge gates; air preheaters; step-up transformers; turbines; chillers; baghouses; and/or mixers/reactors.

(b) Exceptions. This standard does not apply to:

(1) Construction work regulated by §1926 subpart P—Excavations

(2) Construction work regulated by §1926 subpart S—Underground Construction, Caissons, Cofferdams and Compressed Air.

(3) Construction work regulated by §1926 subpart Y—Diving.

(c) Where this standard applies and there is a provision that addresses a confined space hazard in another applicable OSHA standard, the employer must comply with both that requirement and the applicable provisions of this standard.

Final Rule
Explanation and Summary

The scope of the new 29 CFR part 1926, subpart AA–Confined Spaces in Construction, is outlined in 29 CFR 1926.1201. This subpart gives minimum safety and health requirements and procedures to protect workers who work in confined spaces. It discusses how to protect workers from confined-space hazards. The final rule includes training, classification, and evaluation of confined spaces, hazard analysis, entering, exiting, working, and rescue for confined spaces containing different hazards.

The new standard protects employees involved in construction activities at a worksite with one or more confined spaces. The language in the final Section. 1926.1201(a) includes a bright-line test (whether or not the worksite has a confined space) to emphasize two critical points in the final rule that also are true for the general industry standard:

First, all employers involved in construction have a responsibility under the final standard to ensure their workers do not enter a confined space except by the standard’s requirements.  The existence of a confined space at the worksite triggers this responsibility rather than the employer’s type of work. Second, information sharing and coordination of work are critical components of this standard.  And apply to certain employers regardless of whether their employees have entry authorization, have the information needed to protect employees working inside confined spaces, or are engaged in collaborative or lone activities that could endanger the employees working inside a confined space.

Final Section: 1926.1201(a) clarifies that the final standard’s focus is on the type of work performed and whether…

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Acceptable entry conditions” means the conditions that must exist in a permit space to allow entry and to ensure that employees involved with a permit-required confined space entry can safely enter into and work within the space.

Acceptable entry conditions means the conditions that must exist in a permit space, before an employee may enter that space, to ensure that employees can safely enter into, and safely work within, the space.

Acceptable Conditions: | The definition differs somewhat from Section 1910.146(b). OSHA included “before an employee may enter that…

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Attendant” means an individual stationed outside one or more permit spaces who monitors the authorized entrants and who performs all attendant duties assigned in the employer’s permit space program.

Attendant means an individual stationed outside one or more permit spaces who assesses the status of authorized entrants and who must perform the duties specified in §1926.1209.

Attendant: | OSHA implies the attendant’s responsibility to “assess,” rather than “monitor” as written in the general industry-standard…

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Authorized entrant” means an employee who is authorized by the employer to enter a permit space.

Authorized entrant means an employee who is authorized by the entry supervisor to enter a permit space.

Authorized entrant: | The general industry rule stipulates the employer authorizes the…

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Barrier means a physical obstruction that blocks or limits access.

Barrier: | The definition of “barrier” does not address egress explicitly…

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Blanking or blinding” means the absolute closure of a pipe, line, or duct by the fastening of a solid plate (such as a spectacle blind or a skillet blind) that completely covers the bore and that is capable of withstanding the maximum pressure of the pipe, line, or duct with no leakage beyond the plate.

Blanking or blinding means the absolute closure of a pipe, line, or duct by the fastening of a solid plate (such as a spectacle blind or a skillet blind) that completely covers the bore and that is capable of withstanding the maximum pressure of the pipe, line, or duct with no leakage beyond the plate.

Blanking or blinding: | OSHA adopted this definition precisely from Section. 1910.146 and uses this term the exact way in this final rule as in the general industry standard.

Competent person means one who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has the authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.

Competent person: | OSHA uses this well-known definition in a number of its construction standards. Including  Sections 1926.32(f), 1926.450(b),…

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“Confined space” means a space that:
(1) Is large enough and so configured that an employee can bodily enter and perform assigned work; and
(2) Has limited or restricted means for entry or exit (for example, tanks, vessels, silos, storage bins, hoppers, vaults, and pits are spaces that may have limited means of entry.); and
(3) Is not designed for continuous employee occupancy.

Confined space means a space that:
(1) Is large enough and so configured that an employee can bodily enter it;
(2) Has limited or restricted means for entry and exit; and
(3) Is not designed for continuous employee occupancy.

Confined Space: | OSHA did not include the phrase “perform assigned work” in the construction definition of “confined space.” OSHA believed the phrase’s inclusion was “superfluous” and added ambiguity, and therefore omitted it.  Nor did OSHA include the parenthetical that contained examples…

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Control means the action taken to reduce the level of any hazard inside a confined space using engineering methods (for example, by ventilation), and then using these methods to maintain the reduced hazard level. Control also refers to the engineering methods used for this purpose. Personal protective equipment is not a control.

Control: | This definition is consistent with using the term in the general industry confined spaces standard. However, OSHA did not define the term in Section.  1910.146(b).

Controlling Contractor is the employer that has overall responsibility for construction at the worksite.
Note. If the controlling contractor owns or manages the property, then it is both a controlling employer and a host employer.

Controlling contractor: | OSHA included a definition of “controlling contractor” because it is a widespread practice in construction work for multiple employers to work at a construction site at the same time. 

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Double block and bleed” means the closure of a line, duct, or pipe by closing and locking or tagging two in-line valves and by opening and locking or tagging a drain or vent valve in the line between the two closed valves.

Double block and bleed means the closure of a line, duct, or pipe by closing and locking or tagging two in-line valves and by opening and locking or tagging a drain or vent valve in the line between the two closed valves.

Double block and bleed: | OSHA took this term directly from Section.  1910.146.

Early-warning system means the method used to alert authorized entrants and attendants that an engulfment hazard may be developing. Examples of early-warning systems include, but are not limited to: alarms activated by remote sensors; and lookouts with equipment for immediately communicating with the authorized entrants and attendants.

Early-warning system: | A clear understanding of this term will help employers ensure that authorized entrants have sufficient time to exit the space safely. As shown by the non-exhaustive list of early-warning systems in this definition, employers have…

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Emergency” means any occurrence (including any failure of hazard control or monitoring equipment) or event internal or external to the permit space that could endanger entrants.

Emergency means any occurrence (including any failure of power, hazard control or monitoring equipment) or event, internal or external, to the permit space that could endanger entrants.

Emergency: | OSHA specified power loss to emphasize the unexpected loss of power can endanger entrants…

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Engulfment” means the surrounding and effective capture of a person by a liquid or finely divided (flowable) solid substance that can be aspirated to cause death by filling or plugging the respiratory system or that can exert enough force on the body to cause death by strangulation, constriction, or crushing.

Engulfment means the surrounding and effective capture of a person by a liquid or finely divided (flowable) solid substance that can be aspirated to cause death by filling or plugging the respiratory system or that can exert enough force on the body to cause death by strangulation, constriction, crushing, or suffocation.

Engulfment: | This definition is almost identical to Section: 1910.146, except that it also covers “or suffocation” at the end. This additional language clarifies that the definition includes suffocation that does not result from…

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Entry” means the action by which a person passes through an opening into a permit-required confined space. Entry includes ensuing work activities in that space and is considered to have occurred as soon as any part of the entrant’s body breaks the plane of an opening into the space.

Entry means the action by which any part of a person passes through an opening into a permit-required confined space. Entry includes ensuing work activities in that space and is considered to have occurred as soon as any part of the entrant’s body breaks the plane of an opening into the space, whether or not such action is intentional or any work activities are actually performed in the space.

Entry: | This definition is similar to Section: 1910.146(b), except for the last clause to explain that this is a bright-line definition: entry occurs under all circumstances where the entrant’s body breaks the opening’s physical threshold, regardless of the events or activities that caused entry.

Entry Employer means any employer who decides that an employee it directs will enter a permit space.

Note. An employer cannot avoid the duties of the standard merely by refusing to decide whether its employees will enter a permit space, and OSHA will consider the failure to so decide to be an implicit decision to allow employees to enter those spaces if they are working in the proximity of the space.

Entry employer: | 1910.146 does not use the term – entry employer; instead, it refers generally to “employer.” The term “entry employer” in the final rule and the term “employer” in Section.  1910.146(b) are the same. Both terms recognize the employer who must follow confined-space procedures for employers that plan to enter a permit space. OSHA uses “entry employer” to clarify that not all employers on a multi-employer worksite have permit space duties.

Entry permit (permit)” means the written or printed document that is provided by the employer to allow and control entry into a permit space and that contains the information specified in paragraph (f) of this section.

Entry permit (permit) means the written or printed document that is provided by the employer who designated the space a permit space to allow and control entry into a permit space and that contains the information specified in §1926.1206 of this standard.

Entry permit (permit): | OSHA specifies the employer “who designated the space a permit space” must prepare the permit instead of “the employer” as in Section. 1910.146. Otherwise, this definition is identical to Section…

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Entry rescue occurs when a rescue service enters a permit space to rescue one or more employees.

Entry rescue: | Section 1910.146(b) does not specify “entry rescue…

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Entry supervisor” means the person (such as the employer, foreman, or crew chief) responsible for determining if acceptable entry conditions are present at a permit space where entry is planned, for authorizing entry and overseeing entry operations, and for terminating entry as required by this section.

NOTE: An entry supervisor also may serve as an attendant or as an authorized entrant, as long as that person is trained and equipped as required by this section for each role he or she fills. Also, the duties of entry supervisor may be passed from one individual to another during the course of an entry operation.

Entry supervisor means the qualified person (such as the employer, foreman, or crew chief) responsible for determining if acceptable entry conditions are present at a permit space where entry is planned, for authorizing entry and overseeing entry operations, and for terminating entry as required by this standard.
Note. An entry supervisor also may serve as an attendant or as an authorized entrant, as long as that person is trained and equipped as required by this standard for each role he or she fills. Also, the duties of entry supervisor may be passed from one individual to another during the course of an entry operation.

Entry supervisor: | This definition is identical to Section: 1910.146(b), except OSHA replaced “person” with “qualified person.” The note to this definition explains that the entry supervisor can enter the permit space or serve as an attendant following the appropriate requirements. This note is identical to the general industry definition.

Hazard means a physical hazard or hazardous atmosphere. See definitions below.

Hazard: | OSHA included it here to clarify that references to a “hazard” or “hazards” can mean physical or atmospheric hazards or both.

Hazardous atmosphere” means an atmosphere that may expose employees to the risk of death, incapacitation, impairment of ability to self-rescue (that is, escape unaided from a permit space), injury, or acute illness from one or more of the following causes:

(1) Flammable gas, vapor, or mist in excess of 10 percent of its lower flammable limit (LFL);

(2) Airborne combustible dust at a concentration that meets or exceeds its LFL;

NOTE: This concentration may be approximated as a condition in which the dust obscures vision at a distance of 5 feet (1.52 m) or less.

(3) Atmospheric oxygen concentration below 19.5 percent or above 23.5 percent;

(4) Atmospheric concentration of any substance for which a dose or a permissible exposure limit is published in Subpart G, Occupational Health and Environmental Control, or in Subpart Z, Toxic and Hazardous Substances, of this Part and which could result in employee exposure in excess of its dose or permissible exposure limit;

NOTE: An atmospheric concentration of any substance that is not capable of causing death, incapacitation, impairment of ability to self-rescue, injury, or acute illness due to its health effects is not covered by this provision.

(5) Any other atmospheric condition that is immediately dangerous to life or health.

NOTE: For air contaminants for which OSHA has not determined a dose or permissible exposure limit, other sources of information, such as Material Safety Data Sheets that comply with the Hazard Communication Standard, section 1910.1200 of this Part, published information, and internal documents can provide guidance in establishing acceptable atmospheric conditions.

Hazardous atmosphere means an atmosphere that may expose employees to the risk of death, incapacitation, impairment of ability to self-rescue (that is, escape unaided from a permit space), injury, or acute illness from one or more of the following causes:

  1. Flammable gas, vapor, or mist in excess of 10 percent of its lower flammable limit (LFL);
  2. Airborne combustible dust at a concentration that meets or exceeds its LFL;Note to paragraph (2) of the definition of “Hazardous atmosphere”. This concentration may be approximated as a condition in which the combustible dust obscures vision at a distance of 5 feet (1.52 meters) or less.
  3. Atmospheric oxygen concentration below 19.5 percent or above 23.5 percent;
  4. Atmospheric concentration of any substance for which a dose or a permissible exposure limit is published in subpart D of this part (Occupational Health and Environmental Control), or in subpart Z of this part (Toxic and Hazardous Substances), and which could result in employee exposure in excess of its dose or permissible exposure limit;Note to paragraph (4) of the definition of “Hazardous atmosphere”. An atmospheric concentration of any substance that is not capable of causing death, incapacitation, impairment of ability to self-rescue, injury, or acute illness due to its health effects is not covered by this definition.
  5. Any other atmospheric condition that is immediately dangerous to life or health.Note to paragraph (5) of the definition of “Hazardous atmosphere”. For air contaminants for which OSHA has not determined a dose or permissible exposure limit, other sources of information, such as Safety Data Sheets that comply with the Hazard Communication Standard, § 1926.59, published information, and internal documents can provide guidance in establishing acceptable atmospheric conditions.

Hazardous atmosphere: | The definition of “hazardous atmosphere” varied slightly from the definition in Section. 1910.146(b). The five paragraphs address four specific types of hazardous atmospheres and a general condition that includes any other atmosphere that is immediately dangerous to life or health. 

The first condition addresses an atmospheric condition that consists of flammable gas, vapor, or mist above 10% of its lower flammable limit (LFL). OSHA set this level to account for difficulty detecting every flammable gas vapor or mist. The LFL is a cumulative measure representing the mixture of different flammable elements, not just the presence of a single element that could explode. 

The second condition addresses “hazardous atmosphere” consisting of airborne combustible dust at a concentration that meets or exceeds its lower flammable limit (LFL). It is challenging to measure airborne concentrations of combustible dust reliably at a site.  OSHA concluded the final rule would protect employees so long as employers train their employees to recognize combustible dust and ensure combustible dust is below its LFL.

The third condition is a hazardous atmosphere. This condition addresses atmospheric oxygen below 19.5 percent (“oxygen-deficient”) or above 23.5 percent (“oxygen-enriched”) in a confined space. OSHA recognizes safe levels of oxygen vary with altitude. Oxygen concentrations at or above the oxygen-deficient limit of 19.5 percent may still pose atmospheric hazards at very high altitudes.

The fourth condition addresses the concentration of substances that exceeds the allowable dose or exposures specified by OSHA. The final definition incorporates cross-references to the relevant PELs in subparts D – Occupational Health and Environmental Controls and Z – Toxic and Hazardous Substances of 29 CFR part 1926, instead of the general reference to PELs. 

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Host employer means the employer that owns or manages the property where the construction work is taking place.

Note. If the owner of the property on which the construction activity occurs has contracted with an entity for the general management of that property, and has transferred to that entity the information specified in §1203(h)(1), OSHA will treat the contracted management entity as the host employer for as long as that entity manages the property. Otherwise, OSHA will treat the owner of the property as the host employer. In no case will there be more than one host employer.

Host employer: | OSHA added this definition to clarify the difference between a host employer, a controlling contractor, and an employer performing confined space entry. Each of these entities has specific responsibilities under this final rule. OSHA added a note to the definition to address contracts with management companies. Often, a property management company is the primary custodian of blueprints and other information identifying confined spaces. In Section: 11926.1203(h)(1), the host-employer requirements are designed to ensure entry…

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Hot work permit” means the employer’s written authorization to perform operations (for example, riveting, welding, cutting, burning, and heating) capable of providing a source of ignition.

Hot work means operations capable of providing a source of ignition (for example, riveting, welding, cutting, burning, and heating).

Hot work: | OSHA defined the term “hot work permit” to explain the same activity…

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“Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH)” means any condition that poses an immediate or delayed threat to life or that would cause irreversible adverse health effects or that would interfere with an individual’s ability to escape unaided from a permit space.

NOTE: Some materials—hydrogen fluoride gas and cadmium vapor, for example—may produce immediate transient effects that, even if severe, may pass without medical attention, but are followed by sudden, possibly fatal collapse 12-72 hours after exposure. The victim “feels normal” from recovery from transient effects until collapse. Such materials in hazardous quantities are considered to be “immediately” dangerous to life or health.

 

Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) means any condition that would interfere with an individual’s ability to escape unaided from a permit space and that poses a threat to life or that would cause irreversible adverse health effects.

Note. Some materials—hydrogen fluoride gas and cadmium vapor, for example—may produce immediate transient effects that, even if severe, may pass without medical attention, but are followed by sudden, possibly fatal collapse 12-72 hours after exposure. The victim “feels normal” after recovery from transient effects until collapse. Such materials in hazardous quantities are considered to be “immediately” dangerous to life or health.

Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health: | OSHA has modified the definition of IDLH to focus on conditions that would impair an entrant’s ability to self-rescue, pose a threat to life, the capacity to cause permanent adverse health effects. Notes that all other OSHA standards concerning exposure to hazardous substances still apply.

Inerting” means the displacement of the atmosphere in a permit space by a noncombustible gas (such as nitrogen) to such an extent that the resulting atmosphere is noncombustible.

NOTE: This procedure produces an IDLH oxygen-deficient atmosphere. 

Inerting means displacing the atmosphere in a permit space by a noncombustible gas (such as nitrogen) to such an extent that the resulting atmosphere is noncombustible.

Note. This procedure produces an IDLH oxygen-deficient atmosphere.

Inerting: | The definition is identical to the general industry, except for a minor grammatical change. OSHA included a note from the general industry standard to remind employers that the inerting process results in an oxygen-deficient atmosphere; oxygen deficiency is a distinct atmospheric hazard identified in the third subparagraph of “hazardous atmosphere

Isolation” means the process by which a permit space is removed from service and completely protected against the release of energy and material into the space by such means as: blanking or blinding; misaligning or removing sections of lines, pipes, or ducts; a double block and bleed system; lockout or tagout of all sources of energy; or blocking or disconnecting all mechanical linkages.

Isolate or isolation means the process by which employees in a confined space are completely protected against the release of energy and material into the space, and contact with a physical hazard, by such means as: blanking or blinding; misaligning or removing sections of lines, pipes, or ducts; a double block and bleed system; lockout or tagout of all sources of energy; blocking or disconnecting all mechanical linkages; or placement of barriers to eliminate the potential for employee contact with a physical hazard.

Isolate or isolation: | This definition is based on Section: 1910.146(b). Still, OSHA made two minor adjustments and added clarification regarding isolation of a portion of a contiguous space such as a sewer system. First, OSHA clarifies the purpose of isolating is to protect employees instead of the confined space from the release of hazards.  In most cases, isolating the entire space from a hazard is necessary, such as isolating a room from a likely source…

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Limited or restricted means for entry or exit means a condition that has a potential to impede an employee’s movement into or out of a confined space. Such conditions include, but are not limited to, trip hazards, poor illumination, slippery floors, inclining surfaces and ladders

Limited or restricted: | The definition of “limited or restricted means for entry and exit” as used in the general industry standard already encompasses these conditions. OSHA is merely providing the same guidance more explicitly in this final standard.

Line breaking” means the intentional opening of a pipe, line, or duct that is or has been carrying flammable, corrosive, or toxic material, an inert gas, or any fluid at a volume, pressure, or temperature capable of causing injury.

Line breaking means the intentional opening of a pipe, line, or duct that is or has been carrying flammable, corrosive, or toxic material, an inert gas, or any fluid at a volume, pressure, or temperature capable of causing injury.

Line breaking: | This definition is identical to the general industry standard. Although the term is substantively the same in this final standard…

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Lockout means the placement of a lockout device on an energy isolating device, in accordance with an established procedure, ensuring that the energy isolating device and the equipment being controlled cannot be operated until the lockout device is removed.

Lockout: | This definition is identical to the general industry standard (see Section.  1910.147(b)). OSHA has included it to keep consistent with the general industry method… 

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Lower flammable limit or lower explosive limit means the minimum concentration of a substance in air needed for an ignition source to cause a flame or explosion.

Lower flammable limit: | The LFL measurement is typically stated in percentages by volume of gas or vapor in the air…

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Monitor or monitoring means the process used to identify and evaluate the hazards after an authorized entrant enters the space. This is a process of checking for changes that is performed in a periodic or continuous manner after the completion of the initial testing or evaluation of that space.

Monitor or monitoring: | OSHA added the definition in this final rule but changed it somewhat to clarify that monitoring does not apply solely to atmospheric hazards. OSHA uses “periodic testing” and “periodic monitoring” interchangeably in this standard.

Non-entry rescue occurs when a rescue service, usually the attendant, retrieves employees in a permit space without entering the permit space.

Non-entry rescue: | OSHA introduced the definition in this final rule but clarified…

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Non-permit confined space” means a confined space that does not contain or, with respect to atmospheric hazards, have the potential to contain any hazard capable of causing death or serious physical harm.

Non-permit confined space means a confined space that meets the definition of a confined space but does not meet the requirements for a permit-required confined space, as defined in this subpart.

Non-permit confined space: | OSHA reworded the general industry definition to clarify a non-permit confined space is just the…

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Oxygen deficient atmosphere” means an atmosphere containing less than 19.5 percent oxygen by volume.

Oxygen deficient atmosphere means an atmosphere containing less than 19.5 percent oxygen by volume.

Oxygen deficient atmosphere: | This final standard defines the term precisely as it is in Section. 1910.146(b).

Oxygen enriched atmosphere” means an atmosphere containing more than 23.5 percent oxygen by volume.

Oxygen enriched atmosphere means an atmosphere containing more than 23.5 percent oxygen by volume.

Oxygen enrich atmosphere: | This final standard defines the term precisely as it is in Section. 1910.146(b).

“Permit-required confined space (permit space)” means a confined space that has one or more of the following characteristics:
(1) Contains or has a potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere;
(2) Contains a material that has the potential for engulfing an entrant;
(3) Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or by a floor which slopes downward and tapers to a smaller cross-section; or
(4) Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard.

Permit-required confined space (permit space) means a confined space that has one or more of the following characteristics:
(1) Contains or has a potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere;
(2) Contains a material that has the potential for engulfing an entrant;
(3) Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or by a floor which slopes downward and tapers to a smaller cross-section; or
(4) Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard.

Permit-required confined space: | OSHA changed this definition in the final rule Section: 1926.1202 to make it identical to the general industry confined spaces standard.  OSHA rewrote the term to match the phrase “contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard” applies only to serious hazards. The definition of serious physical harm excludes injuries that could not impair an entrant’s ability to escape the space without assistance.  As noted in explaining the definition of hazardous atmosphere…

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Permit-required confined space program (permit space program)” means the employer’s overall program for controlling, and, where appropriate, for protecting employees from, permit space hazards and for regulating employee entry into permit spaces.

Permit-required confined space program (permit space program) means the employer’s overall program for controlling, and, where appropriate, for protecting employees from, permit space hazards and for regulating employee entry into permit spaces.

Permit-required confined space program: |This definition duplicates Section: 1910.146(b). An employer is not required to create specific, confined space programs for each space…

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Permit System” means the employer’s written procedure for preparing and issuing permits for entry and for returning the permit space to service following termination of entry.

Permit system: | In the general industry, OSHA uses the term “permit system” as the heading for…

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Physical hazard means an existing or potential hazard that can cause death or serious physical damage. Examples include, but are not limited to: explosives (as defined by paragraph (n) of §1926.914, definition of “explosive”); mechanical, electrical, hydraulic and pneumatic energy; radiation; temperature extremes; engulfment; noise; and inwardly converging surfaces. Physical hazard also includes chemicals that can cause death or serious physical damage through skin or eye contact (rather than through inhalation).

Physical hazard: | The general industry confined space standard does not define “physical hazard.” OSHA uses the term “physical hazard” throughout this final rule, however, and defined this term in the proposed rule to clarify its meaning. Also, OSHA included “noise” definition of “physical hazard” because sound waves constitute a physical disruption of the air, resulting in a physical effect on the human ear.

Prohibited condition” means any condition in a permit space that is not allowed by the permit during the period when entry is authorized.

Prohibited condition means any condition in a permit space that is not allowed by the permit during the period when entry is authorized A hazardous atmosphere is a prohibited condition unless the employer can demonstrate that personal protective equipment (PPE) will provide effective protection for each employee in the permit space and provides the appropriate PPE to each employee.

Prohibited condition: | This part of the definition is identical to Section: 1910.146(b). OSHA added a sentence to the definition to clarify that a hazardous atmosphere is always a prohibited condition unless the employer can prove that proper PPE will efficiently protect entrants; this extra condition means…

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Qualified person means one who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training, and experience, has successfully demonstrated his ability to solve or resolve problems relating to the subject matter, the work, or the project.

Qualified person: | Although the general industry does not include this term in the description of “entry supervisor.” OSHA used this term in the final rule. While the proposal did not specify “qualified person,” the final rule’s…

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Representative permit space means a mock-up of a confined space that has entrance openings that are similar to, and is of similar size, configuration, and accessibility to, the permit space that authorized entrants enter.

Representative permit space: | Originally OSHA made several non-substantive changes, including changing the term form “simulated… 

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Rescue means retrieving, and providing medical assistance to, one or more employees who are in a permit space.

Rescue: | OSHA described this term in the proposed rule and included the term in the…

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Rescue service” means the personnel designated to rescue employees from permit spaces.

Rescue service means the personnel designated to rescue employees from permit spaces.

Rescue service: | This definition is identical…

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Retrieval system” means the equipment (including a retrieval line, chest or full-body harness, wristlets, if appropriate, and a lifting device or anchor) used for non-entry rescue of persons from permit spaces.

Retrieval system means the equipment (including a retrieval line, chest or full body harness, wristlets or anklets, if appropriate, and a lifting device or anchor) used for nonentry rescue of persons from permit spaces.

Retrieval system: | The purpose of the retrieval system is to remove an entrant from a confined space quickly and without endangering any…

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Serious physical damage means an impairment or illness in which a body part is made functionally useless or is substantially reduced in efficiency. Such impairment or illness may be permanent or temporary and includes, but is not limited to, loss of consciousness, disorientation, or other immediate and substantial reduction in mental efficiency. Injuries involving such impairment would usually require treatment by a physician or other licensed health-care professional.

Serious physical damage: | OSHA defined the term to match the meaning in Section: 1910.146(b), which stipulates that the expression “contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard” applies to serious hazards only, and the meaning of serious physical harm (now “serious physical damage”) excludes injuries that do not impair the ability of a worker to self-rescue. 

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Tagout means:
(1) Placement of a tagout device on a circuit or equipment that has been deenergized, in accordance with an established procedure, to indicate that the circuit or equipment being controlled may not be operated until the tagout device is removed; and
(2) The employer ensures that
(i) tagout provides equivalent protection to lockout, or
(ii) that lockout is infeasible and the employer has relieved, disconnected, restrained and otherwise rendered safe stored (residual) energy.

Tagout: | The general industry rule and the final rule allow “tagout,” in addition to “lockout,” as a means of isolating some hazards. But in both cases, the tagout procedure requires more than the placement of a tag on equipment because tagging equipment does not stop the release of a hazard into a confined space. OSHA has added descriptions of “lockout” and “tagout” to ensure that this final rule’s regulatory text reflects these crucial elements of the general industry standard. OSHA intends the tagout process under this construction rule to parallel the…

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“Testing” means the process by which the hazards that may confront entrants of a permit space are identified and evaluated. Testing includes specifying the tests that are to be performed in the permit space.

NOTE: Testing enables employers both to devise and implement adequate control measures for the protection of authorized entrants and to determine if acceptable entry conditions are present immediately prior to, and during, entry.

Test or testing means the process by which the hazards that may confront entrants of a permit space are identified and evaluated. Testing includes specifying the tests that are to be performed in the permit space.

Note. Testing enables employers both to devise and implement adequate control measures for the protection of authorized entrants and to determine if acceptable entry conditions are present immediately prior to, and during, entry.

Test or testing: | Testing includes defining the description and evaluation methods the employer will use in the permit space. This description is similar to the definition in Section: 1910.146, except that OSHA added the word “test” to explain that the definition applies to both words. OSHA also adds a note identical to the note to this definition on the general industry standard. The note highlights the importance of testing as the basis for developing and implementing adequate control measures.

Ventilate or ventilation means controlling a hazardous atmosphere using continuous forced-air mechanical systems that meet the requirements of §1926.57—Ventilation.

Ventilate or ventilation: | Although the general industry standard does not include a definition of “ventilation,” OSHA includes ventilation in…

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